go to link Presentation outline
 Reasons for having best standards for destinations
 Different approaches to evaluating destinations
 Core principles for Best Destinations standards
 Proposed destination evaluation criteria and standards
http://cinziamazzamakeup.com/?x=comprare-levitra-online-sicuro-Napoli Reasons for having best standards for destinations
 To improve the quality standards in destinations
 To recognize excellence among destinations of similar types
 To stimulate competition that encourages destinations to take action To persuade destinations to adopt international standards
 To inform consumers and others as to what constitutes best destinations
http://cinziamazzamakeup.com/?x=vardenafil-generico-Venezia Different approaches to evaluating destinations
 Popular media best destination lists
 Successful destinations based on numbers of tourists
 Criteria-based evaluation of destinations
 Other related indexes
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http://maientertainmentlaw.com/?search=order-female-cialis-in-canada-pharmacy Popular media best destination lists
 TripAdvisor.com Travelers’ Choice ® annual awards
 National Geographic Traveler Best Trips annual designations
 Frommer’s annual Top Destinations list
 Lonely Planet Best-in-Travel countries, cities, and regions
 U.S. News & World Report World’s Best Places to Visit
 Telegraph’s Twenty Destinations for 2014
 Rough Guides’ Best Places to Go 2014
 Travel + Leisure Best Places to Travel in 2014
 And others!

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Source: Pinterest, https://www.pinterest.com/roughguides/the-best-places-to-go-in-2014/
There are however some problems with these lists:
 The “top destination” listings are popular with consumers.
 However, there are serious doubts about their objectivity since no specific and detailed criteria are given for the selections.
 Moreover, many of the lists change each year and this seems counter-intuitive.
Successful destinations based on numbers of tourists
This approach involves ranking destinations by the total number of tourist arrivals in a given year. The UNWTO’s statistics are often used to do these rankings.

 

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This is a choice of “quantity” over “quality.” Smaller destinations are not necessarily inferior because they have fewer visitors. Additionally, these are country-level statistics and there are many more destinations and DMOs below the country level.

http://cinziamazzamakeup.com/?x=acquistare-levitra-senza-ricetta-Lombardia Criteria-based evaluation of destinations
These are evaluation procedures that are based on criteria developed by experts in destination planning, management, and marketing. The criteria are developed on a third-party basis, so they are considered to be objective and free of commercial bias.
System of Measures for Excellence in Destinations (SMED):

o The World Centre of Excellence for Destinations (CED), located in Montréal, Canada, developed the System of Measures for Excellence in Destinations (SMED).
o This system was created with the support of UNWTO.
o However, the criteria for approval of destinations under SMED have not been made public.
Global Sustainable Tourism Council Criteria
o The Global Tourism Sustainable Council (GSTC), headquartered in Washington DC, has introduced the GSTC Criteria.
o In November 2013, GSTC released the Global Sustainable Council Criteria for Destinations.
o Criteria and Performance Indicators are set in four different sections: demonstrate sustainable destination management; maximize economic benefits to the host community and minimize negative impacts; maximize benefits to communities, visitors, and culture; minimize negative impacts; and maximize benefits to the environment and minimize negative impacts.
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The 10 As of Successful Tourism Destinations (Morrison, 2013)
o using less than 1 mg propecia pills Awareness: Related to tourists’ level of knowledge about the destination and is influenced by the amount and nature of the information they receive.
o go Attractiveness: Number and geographic scope of appeal of the destination’s attractions comprise this attribute.
o prednisone prescription canine lymphoma Availability: Determined by the ease with which bookings and reservations can be made for the destination, and the number of booking and reservation channels available.
o dove comprare viagra generico 25 mg pagamento online a Parma Access: Convenience of getting to and from the destination, as well as moving around within the destination.
o http://maientertainmentlaw.com/?search=propecia-sale Appearance: Measures the impressions that the destination makes on tourists, both when they first arrive and then throughout their stays in the destination.
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o http://buy-generic-clomid.com/clomid_and_ovulation.html Activities: Extent of the array of activities available to tourists within the destination.
o http://acrossaday.com/?search=levitra-sales-2004 Assurance: The safety and security of the destination for tourists.
o Appreciation: The feeling of the levels of welcome and hospitality.
o Action: The availability of a long-term tourism plan and a marketing plan for tourism are some of the required actions.
o Accountability: The evaluation of performance by the destination management organization (DMO).
However, there are no universally-accepted criteria for best, successful, or effective destinations. There remains a global need to establish these criteria and their accompanying standards.
Other related indexes
 Country branding indexes
 Liveability/livability indexes
 Happiness indexes
Country branding indexes
o Country Brand Index, produced by FutureBrand, http://www.futurebrand.com/cbi/2014.
o Nation Brand Index, produced by Anholt-GfK Nations Brand Index, http://www.gfk.com/Documents/GfK-Place-Branding.pdf
o Country Brand Index does consider tourism, heritage and culture:

 

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Livability and happiness indexes
o Global Liveability Ranking and Report, Economist Intelligence Unit, www.eiu.com/liveability2014
o Mercer Quality of Living Survey, www.imercer.com/products/2014/quality-of-living.aspx
o Happy Planet Index (www.happyplanetindex.org).
o Gross National Happiness (www.grossnationalhappiness.com).
o World Happiness Report, UN (http://unsdsn.org/resources/publications/world-happiness-report-2013/)

 

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Sources: World Happiness Report, UN (http://unsdsn.org/resources/publications/world-happiness-report-2013/); Happy Planet Index (www.happyplanetindex.org).
They do not measure all of the criteria that relate specifically to destinations. However, they do measure aspects of places that are relevant such as quality of life and sustainability. They rank countries or cities and are not available for other geographic levels.
Core principles for Best Destinations standards
 Set at international levels, rather than representing the status quo in a particular country, region, or city.
 Reflect best practices in destination management and marketing.
 Consider resident quality of life and happiness, as well as the principles of sustainable tourism.
 Blend together the best elements of different evaluation approaches.
Proposed Best Destinations Evaluation Criteria
Destination mix criteria
o Range and quality of attractions
o Events, activities, and experiences
o Hotels and other accommodations
o Restaurants and foodservices
o Transportation and mobility
o Infrastructure
o Hospitality resources and visitor appreciation
Destination recognition and reputation criteria
o Recognition, popularity, and awareness
o Reputation
Destination information and marketing criteria
o Information and distribution channels
o Destination marketing
Destination quality and quality assurance criteria
o Ambiance and appearance
o Quality assurance and consumer protection
o Quality of life (QOL)
Destination management criteria
o Tourism planning
o Accountability and performance management
o Funding sources and budget allocation
o Community and stakeholder involvement
Destination Sustainability and Tourism Impacts Criteria
o Sustainable tourism policies and plans
o Sustainability: Economic
o Sustainability: Social-Cultural
o Sustainability: Environmental
Specifying standards: work still to be accomplished
We still need to attach weightings and scores to each criterion and sub-criterion. The “threshold total scores” and minimum scores for each criterion to determine the Best Destinations must also be determined. Other sets of criteria for each different category of destinations also have to be specified.
Presentation by Prof. Alastair M. Morrison on December 21, 2014 at the 2014 International Holiday Destination Forum in Zhujiajian, Zhejiang Province, China